Guipure is actually an umbrella term for a number of laces that have much in common. The lace is made both in parts as in one piece from top to bottom . The Bedfordshire lace from England is an example of a guipure, which is made in one piece from top to bottom, while the German guipure is made in parts if necessary. The laces share in the designs the tapes, braids and tallies. In many places different solutions are used for certain details. Thus, in e.g. German guipure the crossings of the braids and tallies are made as small as possible, while in e.g. Cluny the crossings are larger and therefore can be a decoration. Guipure laces are made throughout Europe for each region with its own characteristics, such as the above crossings and tallies. In many guipures the leaf-tallies are round shaped, but in the Bedfordshire lace, often wheat-ears are used. These are straight tallies (stretched mush), which are used as leaf-tallies.
Torchon is a lace, which is made on a grid of 45°. Because of this fixed grid, the laces are geometric. Curves and the like are difficult to implement on this grid. The thread used is usually a little thick, in any case thicker than the threads used in the Tule or Chantilly. Often linen is used, which makes the lace strong and fairly stiff.
There are several grounds in the Torchon, which can also in different stitches. The motifs are in cloth stitch or half stitch, sometimes surrounded by a gimp. The outer edge is often made in a fan-shaped scallop in cloth stitch or whole stitch.
In the beginning of the 20th century the Hollandsche Kant or Dutch Lace was developped. This is a guipure lace with many cloth stitch and half stitch motifs connected to each other by braids. The motifs are mostly geometric or they are stylized flowers.
In those days several lace schools were founded in the Netherland to give girls the opportunity to learn how to make lace and with that knowledge to provide for themselves. Most known are the “Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid”, a government school for crafts in Amsterdam, the lace school “Ieder voor allen” in Wijdenes and the Dutch Lace Society “Het Molenwiekje” among other places in Westkapelle.
The “Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid” in Amsterdam was founded in 1881 and esthablished in the National Museu. 2 known lace designers were teachers in this school: Mrs. L.W. van der Meulen-Nulle (1911-1915) and Mrs. L.P.J. de Jager Meezenbroek-van Beverwijk (1919-1923). The first one is known for her design in Duchesse lace. The last one was a great promotor of the Dutch Lace. Het designs were very geometric with an occasional stylized flowermotif.
The lace workers then could not use the technics to copy things as we can now. They did not have copymachines, computers and scanners. The prikkings had to be copied by hand. Due to that fact the designs were used in many forms, circular, square and oval. They circulated a lot and for a long time. They were made until late in the 20th century and perhaps even now.One example of this I should like to tell you. In the book “Hollandse Kant met passer en lineaal” published by the LOKK (the Dutch Lace Organisation) a edging is given with a corner. Many lace makers know this edging in the circular form as the “Chinese Temple”. It was and still is being used in bobbin lace courses to learn the taking in and discarding of braids.
It is going too far to mention all the designers of the Dutch Lace. There were many, also because of the several lace schools exsisting in those days. More information about the mentioned designers and many others you can find in the book “Hollandse Kant met passer en lineaal” published by the LOKK (the Dutch Lace Organisation).
The Russian Tape laces are made amongst other places in Vologda. Still is in that place a reasonable lace industry. The tape, made mostly with 6 pairs and a gimp, shapes the motif. Sometimes the motives are very complicated. The filings are mostly made when the opening is closed, with 2 pairs of the tape. This requires some puzzling to end at the starting point, sothat the tape can be continued. Nice features of the fillings are the different wheels.
Bruges flowerwork is a bobbin lace made in parts. Characteric for the lace as the name suggests, are the flowers. These have variations in shape (round, oval, etc.) and working method. They have an even number of petals, which alternately are worked in cloth stitch and half stitch. The heart is formed by a filling and sometimes an inside edge onto or away from the petals. Of course leaves in different forms also belong to the flowerwork: single leaf (straight or curved), double leaf or 3-leaf.. You could say that everything is built up by a tape, that is made in different shapes and stitches. Between the motives a fillling of braides is made. Because a rather thick yarn is used, the lace looks rather coarse and sometimes a little stiff. Whether the lace really was developed in Bruges, is not to say, probably it is.
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